a gallery is formed, this turning into a blotch, and later two successive
conical leaf-rolls (UKMoths).
a pale, later brown, usually lower-surface blotch. The blotch is
preceded by an epidermal corridor, but that may be obliterated by
the later blotch. Silk at the inside of the mine causes it to buckle
up a bit and fold. The reddish brown frass is accumulated in a corner
of the mine. The older larva leaves the mine and continues feeding
inside an untidy cone, made by cutting off a strip of leaf tissue
and stitching it in place with silk (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
In the final leaf roll made by the larva (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male and female
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July - September (British
of year - adults: Flies in September and overwinters as an adult,
after which it can be found until April or May (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Occurring locally in England,
Scotland and parts of Ireland (UKMoths);
Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Cumberland (VC70), Denbighshire (VC50),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), Shropshire (VC40),
Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded from the Republic of Ireland. See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland,
Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia
- Central, East and South, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland,
Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: