The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic, 1986
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Horse Chestnut Leaf-miner


Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic, 1986.


Leaf-miner: The larva mines the leaves causing noticeable brown blotches, often many to one leaf. There is however, a similar-looking fungus which can cause confusion (UKMoths).

The mine begins at a flat, oval, somewhat iridescent egg shell at the upperside of the leaf. There starts an epidermal corridor of some mm, that abruptly widens into an upper-surface blotch. The blotch is elongate, often confined between by a pair of lateral veins; its colour is cinnamon, with a darker centre. The frass is not granular, like in Phyllonorycter species, but consists of a tarlike substance covering the floor of the mine. The number of mines can be as much as several tens per leaf. Pupation occurs within the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The leaf-mine is also illustrated in British leafminers and the Encyclopedia of Life.

Watch the Naked Scientist video.

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa and the Encyclopedia of Life.

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

The pupa and whitish silk cocoon are illustrated in British leafminers, UKMoths and the Encyclopedia of Life.

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia of Life. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Comments: The damage caused, impact on trees, management, hosts plants, monitoring, research and distribution maps are discussed in Forest Research.

A review of The Horse-chestnut Leaf-miner and its parasitoids has recently been published by Pocock, Evans, Straw and Polaszek, 2011.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Aceraceae        
Acer platanoides Norway Maple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Acer platanoides Norway Maple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Hippocastanaceae        
Aesculus carnea Red Horse Chestnut British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Aesculus flava Yellow Buckeye   Forest Research
Aesculus hippocastanum Horse-chestnut British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Aesculus hippocastanum Horse-chestnut British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Aesculus hippocastanum Horse-chestnut British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. UKMoths
Aesculus parviflora Bottlebrush Buckeye   Forest Research
Aesculus turbinata Japanese Horse Chestnut   British leafminers

Hosts elsewhere:

Aceraceae        
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Hippocastanaceae        
Aesculus californica     Forest Research
Aesculus glabra     Forest Research
Aesculus hippocastanum Horse-chestnut British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Belgian Lepidoptera
Aesculus hippocastanum Horse-chestnut British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Aesculus pavia     Forest Research
Aesculus sylvatica     Forest Research

Time of year - larvae: May - October (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Multivolitine, with up to three generations a year (British leafminers).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: This species was discovered near Macedonia in 1985, and since then has spread rapidly to other countries in Europe. It was first discovered in Britain at Wimbledon in south-west London in 2002, but possibly had arrived the previous year, as it was quite plentiful. It is thought that the species may be expanding partially due to accidental transportation by man, either by road or rail (UKMoths). Widespread including Anglesey, Bedfordshire, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Cumberland, Denbighshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, East Sussex, Flintshire, Glamorgan, Leicestershire, Mid-west Yorkshire, North Essex, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, North Wiltshire, North-east Yorkshire, Northamptonshire, Shropshire, South Devon, South Essex, South Lancaster, South Wiltshire, SOuth-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Warwickshire, West Gloucestershire, West Lancaster, West Norfolk, West Suffolk, Westmorland and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas). See also Forest Research distribution maps for details of range expansion 2002-7 and British leafminers distribution map). Also recorded in the Channel Is. (Guernsey) (British leafminers - Newsletter).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). Also recorded in North America (Forest Research).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Aesculus flava, Aesculus hippocastanum, Aesculus pavia, Aesculus parviflora

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius saulius Walker, 1839 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus elegantissimus Westwood, 1841 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Elachertus inunctus Nees, 1834 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Hemiptarsenus ornatus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Neochrysocharis chlorogaster (Erdös, 1966) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Sympiesis sericeicornis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Baryscapus nigroviolaceus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Eupelmus urozonus Dalman, 1820 Eupelmidae: Eupelminae
Pteromalus semotus (Walker, 1834) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Pteromalus varians (Spinola, 1808) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes vividus Papp, 1975 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Gelis agilis (Fabricius, 1775) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Gelis areator (Panzer, 1804) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Gelis spurius (Förster, 1850) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Itoplectis alternans (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Itoplectis clavicornis (Thomson, 1889) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Itoplectis maculator (Fabricius, 1775) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Scambus brevicornis (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Zatypota percontatoria (Müller, 1776) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae


External links: Search the internet:

Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths

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Last updated 05-Aug-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page