Leaf-miner: The larvae feed by mining the leaves forming a contorted gallery
strongly contorted, often intestinine-like corridor, often forming
a secondary blotch. Much green frass in broad arcs. Full grown larva
mostly on top of the midrib. Pupation external (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The red and white larva is illustrated in British
and Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
On the ground in detritus (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Nigel Whinney. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July - August, September (British
of year - adults: May and June, and again in August and September
in Great Britain & Ireland: Frequenting open ground and
wasteland, and distributed widely throughout England (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Berkshire (VC22), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Denbighshire (VC50),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Herefordshire (VC36), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Middlesex (VC21),
Monmouthshire (VC35), North Hampshire (VC12), Oxfordshire (VC23), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Also recorded in the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). Rare in Scotland and not known in Ireland or Wales
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland,
Hungary, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madeira, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania,
Russia - Central, East, Northwest, South, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish
mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: