Leaf-miner: Whitish blotches in the leaves (UKMoths).
mine begins as a short zigzagging corridor, that very soon becomes
overrun by a large, perfectly transparent blotch. Frass in a big
black central lump. In fresh mines something like primary feeding
lines are recognisable, normally seen only in Diptera mines. Pupation
external, exit a rather untidy hole (Bladmineerders van Europa).
large, whitish blotch sometimes occupying most or all of the leaf.
The frass is mostly ejected from the mine. (British
mine is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva has a pale head and blackish brown prothoracic plate (British
leafminers). The larva is illustrated in UKMoths
and Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
On the ground in detritus (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, August - September (British
of year - adults: A bivoltine species, with adults on the wing
in May and June, then again in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widely distributed throughout
the British Isles common in some places. (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Berkshire (VC22), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), Flintshire (VC51), Herefordshire (VC36),
Kincardineshire (VC91), Leicestershire (VC55), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolkand Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
favoured habitat is waste ground and similar areas where the foodplants
are found, tending to inhabit more sheltered locations (UKMoths).
recorded from the Republic of Ireland. See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Corsica, Czech
Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany,
Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia
Central, East, North, Northwest and South, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands,
Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: