and case-bearer: The initial mine is like that of a nepticulid. The case is made
form excised leaf portions, which are added to the oral end, leading
to the ringed appearance. The larva causes the leaf to have white
blotches. Identification cannot be made on these alone as similar
blotches can be made by early instar larvae of the Common Blue butterfly
(Polyommatus icarus) (British
at the leaf underside, mostly in a vein axil. The larva begins by
making a narrow winding corridor with much frass in a broad central
line. The corridor reminds that of a nepticulid (but the egg has
a finely reticulate surface, unlike the smooth nepticulid egg.)
In the end the corridor widens into an oval blotch, usually close
to the leaf margin, out of which the first case is made. The full
grown larva in a greyish brown composite leaf case of about 6 mm,
attached to the underside of a leaf. The oldest quarter of the case
is bivalved, laterally compressed, and is at an angle of 70°
with the anterior part of the case. The mouth angle is around 40°
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
case is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September-May (British
of year - adults: Mainly in July (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Found widely in a variety of
habitats throughout the UK (British
leafminers) including Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15),
East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41),
Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12),
North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63),
Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese
mainland, Sardinia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden,
Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: