and case-bearer: Tubular leaf case. The case is almost barrel-shaped, with a large
leaf fragment that, while withering, folds itself untidily arround
the tube (Bladmineerders van Europa).
biennial life cycle in the UK (may be annual in Europe). The second
and third cases are formed by cutting out a large leaf portion and
then wrapping it around - leaving an edge protruding, which then
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Only three pairs of abdominal prolegs (Emmet et al., 1996a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
September - August (British
leafminers). Larvae are full-fed in Britain at the end of August,
but continental authors write October (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cardiganshire (VC46), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Merionethshire (VC48),
North Hampshire (VC12), Shropshire (VC40), South Lancashire (VC59), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey and
Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See NDBC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - South, Slovakia, Spanish mainland,
Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands. Also recorded in the East
Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.