Leaf-miner: Initially a corridor, but in the end half as wide as the blade.
Widening of the mine is done by adding all tissue between two thick
longitudinal veins. Most frass in the lowest part of the mine; part
of it is ejected through a number of small holes. Both during hibernation
as in the pupal stage the larva occupies the lowest part of the
mine; the larva has spun a tube here into which it also retracts
during feeding pauses. The pupa is laying head downwards, just above
a preformed exit opening (Bladmineerders van Europa).
A straight mine which widens. Frass is at one end of the mine and also ejected. Usually one mine in a leaf, but may be more. The larva spins a tube at the base of the mine and hides there. The larva overwinters in the mine. (British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
Larvae in August-April; hibernation in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium,
Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Poland, Romania, Russia - South, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: