Leaf-miner: The larva makes a gallery by a vein or along the midrib and feeding
branches can be seen emanating from this (British
full depth corridor overlying the main veins, with broad lobe-like,
transparent, extensions into the blade. The corridor itself is quite
opaque, white, later brown. The corridors, but not the extensions,
are covered with silk at their inside. Almost all frass is ejected
from the mine; grains may be seen trapped in silk below the mine.
The larva rests lengthwise upon a vein and is very inconspicuous
then. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupation in detritus on the ground. The larva hibernates in its cocoon
before it pupates (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July - September (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19),
Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28) and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Republic of Moldova, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Slovakia,
Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine
and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: