and Leaf-miner: Gall in petiole, later mine in leaf-blade, in 'green island'
leafminers). Check fallen leaves.
on the petiole, c. 1 cm below the base of the leaf. The larva begins
its life as a borer in the petiole, causing it to swell somewhat.
When the leaf disc is reached the larva makes an elongate blotch
between the midrib and the first lateral vein. Frass in two stripes
parallel to the sides of the mine. Pupation external. The larvae
are active mainly at night, retreating into the petiole during daytime
(Johansson et al., 1990a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July - November (British
of year - adults: There is a single generation, and the adults
are on the wing in May and June. It is believed to be parthenogenetic
over most of its UK range (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Locally distributed throughout
mainland Britain, though more plentiful in the south (UKMoths)
including Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Elgin, Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Middlesex (VC21), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Hampshire (VC12), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92),
South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian
mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, Northwest and South,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine
and Yugoslavia. Also recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: