Leaf-miner: The young larvae hatch in around August and form a narrow gallery
mine in the leaves of cowberry, eventually turning into a blotch
in the centre of the leaf, where it pupates in an inflated cavity
at the underside of the leaf. The mine begins as a long corridor,
with the frass in a broad central line, leaving a clear margin at
either side. This gallery abruptly widens into a large full depth
blotch, with a central concentration of frass. The full-grown larva
makes an exit slit in the lower epidermis, then spins an orange-yellow cocoon within the
mine, that is connected with the exit by
a silken tunnel. The cocoon causes the leaf to pucker blister-like
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pale amber, head light brown (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: August - June (British
of year - adults: The adult moths emerge over a long period,
any time between April and August (British
in Great Britain & Ireland: A submontane species, occurring
on high moorland and mountains in Wales, northern England and northern
Scotland, when it can be relatively common if the foodplant is present
leafminers) including Banffshire (VC94), Derbyshire (VC57), Easterness (VC96), Elgin,
Flintshire (VC51), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92),
Stafford and Warwickshire (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian
mainland, Poland, Russia - Central and North, Slovakia, Sweden,
Switzerland and The Netherlands. Also recorded in East Palaearctic
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: