Oviposition at the leaf underside, usually near a vein. The mine
is a narrow, hardly widening, corridor that makes about 5 whole
of half circles closely around the egg. The leaf tissue around th
mine is intensely reddened; often several mines in a leaf. Frass
in a narrow central line. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
gallery starts in tight spirals, turning leaf red (British
larva moves away in an irregular gallery (UKMoths).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Larva pale yellow (British
leafminers). Body pale yellowish, head very pale light brown
(Gustafsson and van Nieukerken, 199a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupation on detritus in a cocoon (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: May - June, August - October (British
of year - adults: There are two or three generations, with adults
on the wing between April and July (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Cardiganshire (VC46),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), North Devon (VC4), Surrey (VC17), West Norfolk (VC28) and West Suffolk (VC26) (VC26), (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, French mainland, Germany,
Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland
and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.