Leaf-miner: Larva mines the leaves turning the upper part from red to black.
In the spring the larva spins the leaves together and then mines
the leaves- creating bladder mines (British
larva begins by making a corridor that generally traverses the leaf
perpendicularly, and later remains visible as a brown ridge. Upon
arrival at the other side this corridor is vacated through an unitidy
hole (In some instances an exuvium was found here). Next the larva
makes a a large, untidy full depth blotch, either in the same leaf
or in a neighbouring one. The blotch, that may occupy the entire
leaf, contains many coarse, oval, frass grains. The larva leaves
the blotch through a large circular opening. Before moving to a
new leaf to old and the new are connected with silk (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Comparatively large, dull grey-green with blackish-brown feet, pinacula,
and thoracic plate. The head is shining black, the anal plate is
light brown (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September-May (British
of year - adults: The adult moths are on the wing in June and
July, and can be found flying on sunny afternoons (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A species generally of high
moorland and mountains, occurring in Scotland from Perth northwards
including Cardiganshire (VC46), Easterness (VC96), Kincardine and South Aberdeen
recorded iin the Republic of Ireland (Ireland's NBDC interactive map).
NBN Grid Map:
Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Czech Republic,
Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Italian
mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia
- North and Northwest, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden and Switzerland
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: