Leaf-miner: The mine starts at or near the leaf edge and widens to a blotch
with frass in long threads (British
white, full depth blotch along the leaf margin. Frass in long threads.
Old mines wither and disintegrate, and cannot be found any more
later in the summer (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The final instar larva has a dark brown head (British
leafminers, as Eriocrania unimaculella), the base of
which shows as two dark spots (UKMoths,
as Eriocrania unimaculella.
with a pair of large black papillae. Head light brown. Abdomen segment
2 laterally with a pair of tubercles (Bladmineerders van Europa).).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths
(as Eriocrania unimaculella). The male
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group
(as Eriocrania unimaculella)
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: April - May (British
of year - adults: The adults fly in sunshine during March and
in Great Britain & Ireland: Well distributed and relatively
common over much of Britain (UKMoths)
including Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), East Sutherland (VC107), Glamorganshire (VC41), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19),
North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Cornwall (VC1), West Kent (VC16) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway, as Eriocrania unimaculella).
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map (as Eriocrania unimaculella).
NBN Grid Map:
Heringocrania unimaculella, as Eriocrania unimaculella
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland,
Romania, Russia - South, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: