are deposited on the upperside of the leaf, mostly in groups of
5-10, less often singly, generally along a vein; the empty shells
are flat and shining. The snow-white larvae form large, upper-surface
blotches in which considerable larvae may be present, also mines
may coalesce. Pupation is external; exit slit in upper epidermis
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
larva is illustrated in (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Described by Patocka (2000a), Patocka and Turcani (2005a). Pupation
is solitary under a conspicuous white spinning in the shape of an
'H' (van Frankenhuyzen and Freriks, 1970a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
June - September (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including ? East Ross (VC106),
? Easterness and ? Elgin (NBN
NBN Grid Map: Currently unavailable
Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belarus,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region,
Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia -
Central, East and Northwest, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
x canadensis, Populus
x canescens, Populus
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: