Bark-miner: A gallery in the bark of the food plant generally mining upwards,
similar to that of Trifurcula immundella, which usually mines
mines are very hard to detect, but in late spring, the small white
pupal cocoons are easy to spot among the dark stems (UKMoths).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupation in a white silken cocoon attached to a stem (British
leafminers). The cocoon is also illustrated in
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
elsewhere: Currently unknown.
of year - larvae: September-May (British
of year - adults: The adults fly during June and July (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread and common throughout
the whole of Britain (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Ayrshire (VC74), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36),
Kincardineshire (VC91), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19), Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40),
South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Lancashire (VC59), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (NBDC interactive map).
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Luxembourg, Poland,
Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Northwest, Sicily, Slovakia,
Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands. Also
recorded in the Nearctic region and Australian region (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: