Leaf-miner: Early mines are spiral galleries; later forms pale blotches, sometimes
having moved to a different leaf (British
at the upperside of the leaf, not near the midrib. The larva starts
by making a long, narrow, full depth corridor that is strongly spiraled
or even lies in intestine-like loops. Frass as fine grains, distributed,
later in a central line. After a while a new mine is made, either
a continuation of the corridor or, more often, in a new leaf. This
new mine begins as a narrow corridor but soon widens into a large
blotch; here the fass lies in a broad band. The larva lies venter-upwards
in the mine. Pupation external (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Whitish; head light brown; propthoracic and anal shield yellowish brown (Koster, 2002b; Koster and Sinev, 2003a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupation in a cocoon, on a leaf or in leaf-litter (British
leafminers). See also See Patočka and Turčáni (2005a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: August-September (British
of year - adults: A single generation flies in July and August
but is not easy to locate as an adult (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A relatively local species occurring
in England and Wales, less common in the eastern counties (UKMoths)
including Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), County Durham (VC66), East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Leicestershire (VC55), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Wiltshire (VC7),
South Northumberland (VC67), Shropshire (VC40), South Devon (VC3), South-west Yorkshire (VC63),
Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Balearic Is., Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland,
Romania, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The
Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: