The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Parectopa ononidis (Zeller, 1839)
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Clover Slender


Gracilaria ononidis Zeller, 1839. Isis: 209.
Parectopa ononidis
(Zeller, 1839).


Leaf-miner: The mine begins as a tiny, lower-surface epidermal corridor. Only after the first moult the larva starts feeding on the leaf parenchyma. The first result is a corridor overlying the midrib. From here branches enter the leaf disk; gradually they widen and merge, laeving in the end almost the entire leaf mined out. Almost all frass is ejected. The larva can leave its mine and make a new one elsewhere. Pupation witin the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Golden or greenish yellow (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

The pupa is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Adult: The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Fabaceae        
Ononis British leafminers
Ononis       Pitkin & Plant
Trifolium pratense Red Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Trifolium British leafminers
Trifolium       Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Fabaceae        
Ononis repens Common Restharrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ononis spinosa Spiny Restharrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium medium Zigzag Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium montanum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium ochroleucum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium pratense Red Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium repens White Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: July; hibernating from September - April (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, East Kent, North Hampshire, South Wiltshire and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas). See also British leafminers distribution map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Corsica, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, Northwest and South, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Ononis repens, Ononis spinosa, Trifolium medium, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Dolichogenidea halidayi (Marshall, 1872) Braconidae: Microgastrinae


External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths
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Last updated 06-May-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page