Leaf-miner: A tortuous lower epidermal mine with a central brownish frass-line.
The larva then mines into the petiole and subsequently into a second
leaf, normally opposite, where it creates another similar epidermal
long, purely epidermal, corridor, either upper- or lower-surface.
The mines are restricted to the terminal leaves of young shoots.
The mine passes from one leaf to the other by way of the shoot epidermis.
Frass in a broad fuzzy central line. The corridor ends upon a leaf
margin, where pupation takes place under a folded part of the margin,
not in an evident cocoon (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in British
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Under a membrane on the margin of leaf (British
leafminers). The pupa is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Rob Edmunds.
The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June, August -September (British
of year - adults: Two generations, in July and from September
through to April. The overwintering adults are sometimes found in
thatch or haystacks (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: This rather local species is
distributed in the south and south-east of England, and is generally
including Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Cornwall (VC2), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25),
North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), Shropshire (VC40), Staffordshire (VC39), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map. Recently recorded from Dorset from mines on Salix by Jenny Seawright (Facebook Group). The first record since 1891 for this county.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Macedonia, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central,
East, Northwest and South, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland,
The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: