Leaf-miner: A 'snail-trail'-like mine on the upper surface, long and sinuous,
without any visible frass. The mine can sometimes cover most of
the leaf (British
long, broad, epidermal corridor that winds in dense loops over the
upperside of the leaf without crossing itself. Frass in a continuous,
extremely vague central line. The mine ends at the leaf margin,
where the corridor is slightly widened, and in which some silk is
deposited. When this dries the the leaf margin somewhat folds over
this pupal chamber, since it is here that pupation takes place.The
mine has a strong resemblance to the trail of dried mucus left by
a small snail, which has given the mine its Dutch name of snail-trail
mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The pupa is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. Under a membrane on the margin of leaf (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The female genitalia, but not the male gemitalia (check for update) are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June, August (British
of year - adults: The adults fly in July and from September
onwards, overwintering sometimes in haystacks (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Fairly common in most of England,
becoming scarcer further north (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Hertfordshire (VC20),
Isle of Wight (VC10), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8),
Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and
Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Corsica, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland,
Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia Central, East, Northwest
and South, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine.
Also recorded in Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: