Leaf-miner: A small mine (about 1cm long), which strongly arches the leaf.
The mine of Parornix betulae can appear similar, but the
underside becomes brown whereas the mine of P. anderidae stays green (British
lower-surface tentiform mine; epidermis pale green, rather weakly
folded. The pupa lies without a cocoon in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The cremaster is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - November (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including
Banffshire (VC94), Denbigh, Elgin, North Hampshire (VC12), Shropshire (VC40), South Essex (VC18),
South Hampshire and West Norfolk (VC28), (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium,
Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - Central, Russia - North, Northwest
and South, Sweden, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van
Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: