The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phyllonorycter anderidae (W. Fletcher, 1885)
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Small Birch Midget


Lithocolletis anderidae W. Fletcher, 1885. Ent. mon. Mag. 22: 40.
Phyllonorycter anderidae
(W. Fletcher, 1885).


Leaf-miner: A small mine (about 1cm long), which strongly arches the leaf. The mine of Parornix betulae can appear similar, but the underside becomes brown whereas the mine of P. anderidae stays green (British leafminers).

Small lower-surface tentiform mine; epidermis pale green, rather weakly folded. The pupa lies without a cocoon in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

The cremaster is illustrated in British leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.

Phyllonorycter anderidae pupa,  dorsal
Phyllonorycter anderidae pupa, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group (check for update).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Betulaceae        
Betula        
Betula       Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Betulaceae        
Betula humilis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula nana Dwarf Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: July, September - November (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Banffshire, Denbigh, Elgin, North Hampshire, Shropshire, South Essex, South Hampshire and West Norfolk (NBN Atlas).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - Central, Russia - North, Northwest and South, Sweden, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Betula nana, Betula pubescens

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis phryne (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Elachertus isadas (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Sympiesis notata (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae


External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths
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Last updated 06-May-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page