The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Phyllonorycter anderidae (W. Fletcher, 1885)
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Small Birch Midget

Lithocolletis anderidae W. Fletcher, 1885. Ent. mon. Mag. 22: 40.
Phyllonorycter anderidae
(W. Fletcher, 1885).

Leaf-miner: A small mine (about 1cm long), which strongly arches the leaf. The mine of Parornix betulae can appear similar, but the underside becomes brown whereas the mine of P. anderidae stays green (British leafminers).

Small lower-surface tentiform mine; epidermis pale green, rather weakly folded. The pupa lies without a cocoon in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

The cremaster is illustrated in British leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.

Phyllonorycter anderidae pupa,  dorsal
Phyllonorycter anderidae pupa, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The species is included in

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Betula       Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Betula humilis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula nana Dwarf Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Belgian Lepidoptera
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: July, September - November (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Caernarvonshire, Denbighshire, Dorset, Durham, Elgin, Huntingdonshire, North Hampshire, Shropshire, South Essex, South Hampshire, Stafford, Stirlingshire, Surrey, West Norfolk and West Perth (NBN Atlas).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - Central, Russia - North, Northwest and South, Sweden, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Betula nana, Betula pubescens

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis phryne (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Elachertus isadas (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Sympiesis notata (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae

External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google

XHTML Validator
Last updated 27-Jun-2019  Brian Pitkin Top of page