Leaf-miner: A large lower surface mine, which contorts the upper surface of
the leaf. A very similar mine to P.
hilarella and it needs to be bred out for a positive identification
large, lower-surface tentiform mine, mostly between two side veins.
The upperside is fairly strongly inflated. The underside has many
narrow folds, not easily seen because of the indumentum at the underside
of the leaf. Frass pakced in a corner of the mine. Neither mine,
cocoon nor pupa can be distinguished from those of Ph.
hilarella (Gregor and Patocka, 2001a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Described by Gregor and Patocka (2001a) and Patocka and
Turcáni (2005a). Cremaster large, about square, with a single
pair of stout spines that are curved outwards (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The female genitalia, but not the male genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: There are two generations of the moth, adults
on the wing in May and June, and again in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Southern and central England,
recently recorded in Lancaster (Chorlton, Greater Manchester) (UKMoths);
Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), Glamorganshire (VC41), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), South Essex (VC18), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - Central, North and Northwest,
Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: