The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phyllonorycter junoniella (Zeller, 1846)
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Upland Midget


Lithocolletis junoniella Zeller, 1846. Linn. Ent. 1: 215, t. 1 fig. 20
Phyllonorycter junoniella
(Zeller, 1846).



Leaf-miner:
The mine on the underside can cause the whole leaf to arch (British leafminers).

Mines are most often found on plants low down amongst the heather (UKMoths).

Lower-surface tentiform mine, that involves almost the entire leaf. The leaf margins are strongly pulled together, arching the upper surface. Because the leaf tissue of the roof of the mine is incompletely eaten away, this upper surface has got a mottled appearance (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Body pale amber yellow, head light yellow brown (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).Body pale amber yellow, head light yellow brown (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The female genitalia, but not the male genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Ericaceae        
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Cowberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Cowberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Cowberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. UKMoths

Hosts elsewhere:

Ericaceae        
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Cowberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: July, October-April (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Mainly on the wing in June and July, although in some areas it can be double-brooded, appearing again later in the autumn (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: A species of higher ground, particularly moorland, distributed in Wales and from the Midlands northwards to much of Scotland (UKMoths) including Banffshire, Caernarvonshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, East Perthshire, Easterness, Elgin, Flintshire, Glamorgan, Kincardineshire, Merionethshire, North Aberdeen, Shropshire, South Aberdeen and Stafford (NBN Atlas).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, East, North, Northwest and South, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas maps of known host species:

Vaccinium vitis-idaea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Apanteles contaminatus (Haliday, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Apanteles lacteus (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Pholetesor bicolor (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Gelis agilis (Fabricius, 1775) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae


External links: Search the internet:

Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths

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Last updated 12-May-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page