Leaf-miner: The mine is underside, small, seldom reaching midrib. The lower
epidermis with several small creases, sometimes several larvae mine
the same leaf (British
tentiform mine between two side veins, often at quite some distance
from the midrib. Lower surface with many folds, all very weak. Often
several mines in one leaf. Pupa in a white cocoon in an angle of
the mine, attached to the roof. The cocoon is free from frass; all
frass is heaped in an angle of the mine, opposite to the cocoon
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The cremaster is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September - October (British
of year - adults: The adults fly mostly in August, but the species
may be bivoltine, with moths also recorded in May (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including
Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
Dorset (VC9), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Glamorganshire (VC41),
Herefordshire (VC36), Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7),
Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Essex (VC18), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland ((UKMoths). See NDBC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian
mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian
mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central,
Northwest and South, Sardinia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The
Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. Also recorded in Near East
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Achrysocharoides cilla (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839)
|Pediobius alcaeus (Walker, 1839)
|Pnigalio agraules (Walker, 1839)
|Pnigalio longulus (Zetterstedt, 1838)
|Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839)
|Bracon variegator Spinola, 1808
|Pholetesor bicolor (Nees, 1834)
|Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834)
|Pholetesor nanus (Reinhard, 1880)
|Rhysipolis hariolator (Haliday, 1836)
|Scambus calobatus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
|Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802)