Leaf-miner: A long mine between veins, several creases in lower epidermis. It
is strongly contracted, forming a tubular shape (British
at the underside of the leaf, always near a side vein. The mine
begins as an elongate blotch of 5-7 mm alongside the vein. This
develops into an elongate lower-surface tentiform mine between two
side veins, sometimes from midrib to leaf margin. Contraction of
the lower epidemis may give the mine a tubular aspect. The lower
epidermis has a number of fine folds that are set so close together
as to appear one single strong fold. Al frass is heaped in a corner
of the mine. The pupa lies in a loose, white, membranaceous cocoon
in the opposite corner (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The pupa is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Two broods, flying in May and June, and again
in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: It is common throughout Britain
including Anglesey (VC52), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Caithness (VC109), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Easterness (VC96), Edinburgh, Elgin,
Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48),
Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19),
North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Radnorshire (VC43), Shropshire (VC40),
South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway), the Channel Is.
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern
Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech
Republic, Danish mainland, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek
mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central
and South, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The
Netherlands. Also recorded in the Near East (Karsholt and van
Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Achrysocharoides buekkensis (Erdös, 1958)
|Achrysocharoides cilla (Walker, 1839)
|Achrysocharoides latreillii (Curtis, 1826)
|Chrysocharis elongata (Thomson, 1878)
|Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis phryne (Walker, 1839)
longiventris (Askew, 1979)
|| Eulophidae: Entedoninae
trifasciatus Westwood, 1833
|| Eulophidae: Entedoninae
vittatus Walker, 1838
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
|Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839)
stylata Förster, 1862
braconius Haliday, 1833
|Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834)
|Diadegma holopygum (Thomson, 1887)
|Encrateola laevigata (Ratzeburg, 1848)
|Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802)