Leaf-miner: The larva feeds in a blotch on the underside of the leaf, which
contracts and causes the leaf to pucker strongly. The mine is quite
large and can occupy most of a leaf (UKMoths).
tentiform mine, that in small leaves can occupy the entire underside.
The mine does contract strongly, folding the leaf, sometimes causing
it to become tube-like. Lower epidermis with many fine folds. Frass
packed in the opposite corner.Bladmineerders van Europa.
mine is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The yellow larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The pupa is illustrated in British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July and September to October (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Two generations, flying in May and again in
in Great Britain & Ireland: A relatively local and uncommon
species, distributed mainly in the coastal counties around the British
including Anglesey (VC52), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Glamorganshire (VC41),
North Aberdeenshire (VC93), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Hampshire and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN
Gateway) and North-East Yorkshire (British
leafminers). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland,
Russia Central, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and
Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: