Leaf-miner: The mine is underside, small, at or near midrib. The lower epidermis
with one strong crease (British
tentiform mine, not longer than 20 mm, usually in the axil of a
thick lateral vein, with one strong length fold. Pupa in a tough
off-white cocoon that is fastened to the floor and the roof of the
mine. Almost all frass is incorporated in the sides of the cocoon
(visible with a loupe in transparancy as two dark lines). In autumn
not infrequently five or more mines in one leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pale green (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
cremaster is illustrated in British
leafminers. The pupa is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Two generations; in May and again in August
in Great Britain & Ireland: Quite a common species throughout
the British Isles (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Berkshire (VC22), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cumberland (VC70), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Flintshire (VC51),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91),
Merionethshire (VC48), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6),
North Wiltshire (VC7), Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, North and Northwest, Sardinia,
Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: