Leaf-miner: The mine is long and narrow, tubular, caused by strong contraction.
The lower epidermis with several strong creases (British
tubular tentiform mine between two lateral veins, in many cases
from midrib to leaf margin. Lower epidermis with several long folds
close together. Pupa light brown, in tough brown papery coccoon
that is attached to the lower epidermis. All frass in a mass in
one corner of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The head and pronotum of the larva are illustrated
in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The cremaster is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Two generations, adults at large during May
and again in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Relatively common in mainland
Britain northwards to southern Scotland (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Radnorshire (VC43),
Shropshire (VC40), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63),
Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), West Sussex (VC13) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania,
Russia - Central and Northwest, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The
Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: