Leaf-miner: The larva forms a blotch mine on the underside of a leaf, often
quite small, but puckering the leaf noticeably (UKMoths).
mine is 10-15 mm long, 1-6 creases in lower epidermis (British
lower surface tentiform mine; the lower epidermis is greenish yellow
and weakly folded. Pupation within the mine in a cocoon that in
the summer generation is so flimsy that sometimes it seems to be
missing, while in the autumn generation it is quite tough. All frass
in a corner of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Whtish, with an orange-yellow spot dorsally on the sixth abdominal
segment. See Grandi (1931a, 1933a) for a description of the morphology
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The pupa is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Two generations, with adults flying in May
and again in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: This species can be found almost
anywhere where the foodplant, birch (Betula) is present.
Common throughout the British Isles (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25),
East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Ebudes (VC104),
North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32),
Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11),
South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Westmorland
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia Central,
East, North, Northwest and South, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland,
The Netherlands and Ukraine. Also recorded in East Palaearctic and
Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Achrysocharoides atys (Walker, 1839)
|Achrysocharoides niveipes (Thomson, 1878)
|Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis phryne (Walker, 1839)
|Pediobius alcaeus (Walker, 1839)
diallus Walker, 1838
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
vittatus Walker, 1838
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
|Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839)
|Minotetrastichus platanellus (Mercet, 1922)
stylata Förster, 1862
braconius Haliday, 1833
|Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834)
|Pholetesor nanus (Reinhard, 1880)
|Rhysipolis decorator (Haliday, 1836)
armillatum (Gravenhorst, 1829)
|Diadegma lithocolletis Horstmann, 1969
|Diadegma nanus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
|Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802)