The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phyllonorycter viminiella Sircom, 1848
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]


Argyromiges viminiella Sircom, 1848. Zoologist: 2271
Phyllonorycter viminiella Sircom, 1848


Comments:

Phyllonorycter viminiella (Sircom, 1848) is treated  as a junior synonym of Phyllonorycter salictella (Zeller, 1846) in Belgian Lepidoptera, Bladmineerders van Europa and Fauna Europaea. If the two names are indeed synonymous then the earliest, and therefore senior name, is Phyllonorycter salictella (Zeller, 1846).

The NBN Atlas treats viminiella (Sircom, 1848) as a subsp. of Phyllonorycter salictella (Zeller, 1846), along with the nominate subsp. salictella (Zeller, 1846).

UKMoths and Agassiz, Beavan and Heckford, 2013 in the Checklist only include Phyllonorycter viminiella (Sircom, 1848); and Agassiz, Beavan and Heckford, 2013 in the Checklist includes Phyllonoryter salictella sensu auctt. (nec. Zeller) as a junior synonym Phyllonorycter viminiella (Sircom, 1848).

The Hymenopterists recognise two species each with a different suite of parasitoids.

According to Agassiz (pers. comm.) "The taxa [salictella and viminiella] look different" and "traditionally British specimens have been referred to viminiella".

Leaf-miner: The mine is underside, strongly creased and contracted causing leaf-edge to fold down (British leafminers).

The mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.

Mine of Phyllonorycter salictella. Image: © Ian Kimber (British leafminers)

Mine of Phyllonorycter viminiella
Image: © Ian Kimber (British leafminers)

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The species is included in mothdissection.co.uk.

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Salicaceae        
Salix       British leafminers
Salix       Pitkin & Plant
Salix alba White Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Salix alba White Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Salix cinerea Grey Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Salix cinerea Grey Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Salix x fragilis Crack-willow Crack-willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Salix x fragilis Crack-willow Crack-willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Salix x fragilis Crack-willow Crack-willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. UKMoths
Salix matsudana British leafminers
Salix matsudana     Pitkin & Plant
Salix viminalis Osier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Salix viminalis Osier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Salix viminalis Osier   UKMoths
Salix x sericans Broad-leaved Osier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Salix x sericans Broad-leaved Osier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere (as a junior synonym of Phylonoryctor salictella):

Salicaceae        
Salix alba White Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix babylonica Weeping Crack-willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix daphnoides European Violet-willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix euxina or x fragilis Crack-willow or Hybrid Crack-willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix incana     Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix purpurea Purple Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix triandra Almond Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix viminalis Osier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: Currently unknown.

Time of year - adults: The adults fly in May and June and again in August (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: A species generally inhabiting wetland habitats, the distribution of this moth extends throughout England and Wales and into southern Scotland and there are scattered records from Ireland and northern Scotland (UKMoths) including Anglesey, Bedfordshire, Breconshire, Caernarvonshire, Carmarthenshire, Cambridgeshire, Carmarthenshire, Denbighshire, Derbyshire, Dumfriesshire, East Kent, Flintshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Isle of Wight, Leicestershire, Merionethshire, North Devon, North Essex, North Hampshire, North Somerset, Nothumberland South, Pembrokeshire, South Hampshire, South Somerset, South-west Yorkshire, Warwickshire, Westmorland and Worcester (NBN Atlas).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, North and Northwest, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine. Also recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea, as salictella).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Salix alba, Salix babylonica, Salix cinerea, Salix daphnoides, Salix fragilis, Salix matsudana, Salix purpurea, Salix x sericans (= Salix x smithiana), Salix triandra, Salix viminalis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Achrysocharoides zwoelferi Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Achrysocharoides niveipes (Thomson, 1878) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis laomedon Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nephereus Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pnigalio longulus (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Pholetesor nanus (Reinhard, 1880) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Scambus vesicarius (Ratzeburg, 1844) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae


External links: Search the internet:

Belgian Lepidoptera, as a junior synonym of P. salictella
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa, as a junior synonym of P. salictella
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea, as a junior synonym of P.salictella
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist, as P. salictella subsp. viminiella
UKMoths

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Last updated 22-Apr-2018  Brian Pitkin Top of page