Leaf-miner: The larva mines young leaves and the narrow initial mine ends
in a blotch. The larva cuts out a section of the leaf and over winters
in this on the ground (British
very narrow corridor that may wind several times through the leaf,
freely crossing the midrib. The corridor often cuts off parts of
the leaf, that die as a result. The corridor does not increase in
width, until it abruptly widens into an irregular elongate blotch.
In the end of the blotch an oval excision is made, c. 4 mm long,
in which the larva drops to the ground for pupation. Mines in the
very youngest leaves (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Jon Baker.
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July - August (British
of year - adults: The adults fly in May and June, and can sometimes
be found in daylight around birches on heaths. It is also attracted
to light (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Distributed throughout the British
including Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Isle of Wight (VC10),
Kincardineshire (VC91), Linlithgow, Merionethshire (VC48), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Montgomeryshire (VC47),
North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Lancashire (VC59),
South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and
Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, ? Luxembourg, Norwegian
mainland, Poland, Russia - Central, North and Northwest, Sweden,
Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: