Leaf-miner: A gallery, with coiled frass in central part (British
generally at the upperside of the leaf, and not far from the leaf
margin. The mine is a rather wide corridor, that often crosses a
vein, and almost invariably runs from somewhere near the leaf margin
in the direction of the midrib. Its first part is quite narrow,
with a narrow central frass line. The next section is wider, and
here the frass is distinctly coiled. In the final section the frass
lies somewhat more irregular, and in a rather narrow central zone
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is whitish-yellow, head pale brown (British
by Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) (Bladmineerders van Europa). See also NBDC interactive map.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia of Life. The male genitalia, but not he female genitalia (check for update) are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
of year - adults:
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread including Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (Brecknockshire), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (caernarfon), Caithness (VC109), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Easterness (East Inverness-shire and Nairnshire), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91), Middlesex (VC21), Midlothian (Edinburgh), Monmouthshire (VC35), Moray (Elgin), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Nottinghamshire (VC56), Shropshire (Salop), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland With Furness (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
Also recorded in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: mWidespread in continental Europe incluidng Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: