The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Stigmella lapponica (Wocke, 1862)
[Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae]

Drab Birch Pigmy

Nepticula lapponica Wocke, 1862. Stett. ent. Ztg.: 251.
Stigmella lapponica
(Wocke, 1862).

Leaf-miner: The mine is long, filled with green frass to ¼, then linear (British leafminers).

Oviposition generally at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a slender corridor that hardly widens, even towards the end. The first third is stuffed with diffuse greenish brown frass. After a moult the frass pattern changes completely, into a very narrow, continuous black line. The mine often follows a thick vein over a long distance, but the larva is capable of crossing thick veins, even the midrib (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

The larva is a greenish white, head brown (British leafminers).

Pale yellowish green, head dark; the larva lies venter-downwards in the mine. See Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) for a detailed description (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Betula       British leafminers
Betula       Pitkin & Plant
Betula       UKMoths

Hosts elsewhere:

Betula humilis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula nana Dwarf Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pendula Silver Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pubescens subsp. tortuosa Arctic Downy Birch   Bladmineerders van Europa. as Betula pubescens subsp. carpatica

Time of year - larvae: Mid June - early July (British leafminers; UKMoths).

Time of year - adults: Single-generation on the wing in May (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Fairly common throughout the British Isles (UKMoths) including Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Carmarthenshire, Cheshire, Denbighshire, Derbyshire, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Ross, East Suffolk, Easterness, Glamorgan, Herefordshire, Huntingdonshire, Kincardineshire, Mid-west Yorkshire, Middlesex, Monmouthshire, North Aberdeen, North Devon, North Ebudes, North Essex, North Hampshire, North Somerset, North Wiltshire, Northamptonshire, Shropshire, South Aberdeen, South Hampshire, South Lancaster, South Wiltshire, South-east Yorkshire, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Gloucestershire, West Kent, West Lancaster, West Norfolk, West Suffolk, Westmorland and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, North and Northwest, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia. Also recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Betula nana, Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, Betula pubescens subsp. tortuosa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Gnamptodon pumilio (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Gnamptodontinae

External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Last updated 18-Aug-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page