Leaf-miner: The frass is dispersed in early part of mine (British
at upper or lower surface. Rather slender corridor mine, hardly
widened in the end. The corridor often follows the leaf margin for
some distance. The first section of the corridor is almost entirely
filled with frass. Frass in the later part of the mine in more or
less clear coils. Pupation external; exit slit invariably in upper
epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is yellow (British
larva is also illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Rob Edmunds.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July-July, September - October (British
of year - adults: There are two generations, with adults in
May and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Distributed throughout the British
including Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Berkshire (VC22), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35),
North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Northamptonshire (VC32),
Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway), although becoming scarcer further north (UKMoths)
and the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Faroe Is., Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland,
Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central and East,
Slovakia, Slovenia, ? Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The
Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: