Leaf-miner: The gallery is sinuous, widening later, with linear frass (British
at the underside of the leaf, near a vein. The mine is quite variable.
It is a rather strongly tortuous corriodor, sometime widening only
a little, sometimes strongly, at times ending in a secondary blotch.
Frass black or brown, in a narrow central line (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
larva is yellow, head brown (British
leafminers; Briolini (1961a); Gustafsson and van Nieukerken
(1990a); Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Isle of Wight (VC10), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19),
North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), South Hampshire (VC11), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and
Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech
Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany,
Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central and East,
Slovakia, Slovenia, ? Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The
Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Asecodes delucchii (Boucek, 1971)
|Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839)
nitetis (Walker, 1939)
|Chrysocharis prodice (Walker, 1839)
pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838)
|Closterocerus lyonetiae (Ferrière, 1952)
trifasciatus Westwood, 1833
vittatus Walker, 1838
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
|Cirrospilus viticola (Rondani, 1877)
|Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839)
|Gnamptodon pumilio (Nees, 1834)