The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Stigmella obliquella (Heinemann, 1862)
[Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae]

Willow Pigmy


Nepticula obliquella Heinemann, 1862. Wien. ent. Monts. 6: 316.
Stigmella obliquella
(Heinemann, 1862).

Leaf-miner: An early gallery filled with frass, later leaving clear margins, finally a blotch (British leafminers).

Egg at the upper- or underside of the leaf, usually close to the midrib or leaf margin. The mine is a somewhat widening corridor. Its course is variable, but generally it contains several long, more or less straight, segments. The black frass almost fills the first half of the corridor. Later the frass line becomes relatively narrower, and is more often interrupted. Pupation external, exit slit in the upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Larva amber, head and faint ventral spots, brown (British leafminers). Yellow (Gustafsson and van Nieukerken, 1990a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Salicaceae        
Salix alba White Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Salix babylonica Weeping Crack-willow   British leafminers
Salix euxina or x fragilis Crack-willow or Hybrid Crack-willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Salix matsudana     Pitkin & Plant
Salix viminalis Osier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Salicaceae        
Salix alba White Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix babylonica Weeping Crack-willow   Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix x sepulcralis Weeping Willow   Bladmineerders van Europa, as Salix x chrysocoma
Salix euxina or x fragilis Crack-willow or Hybrid Crack-willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix pentandra Bay Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix triandra Almond Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salix viminalis Osier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: June - July, September - October (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: May and August (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, Glamorgan, Haddington, Herefordshire, Middlesex, Monmouthshire, North Essex, North Hampshire, North Somerset, North Wiltshire, Shropshire, South Wiltshire, Stafford, Surrey, West Gloucestershire, West Norfolk, West Suffolk and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, ? Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, ? Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia Central, Northwest and South, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. Also recored in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Salix alba, Salix babylonica, Salix fragilis, Salix matsudana, Salix pentandra, Salix triandra, Salix viminalis, Salix x sepulcralis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Chrysocharis acoris (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Adelius erythronotus (Förster, 1851) Braconidae: Cheloninae
Adelius subfasciatus Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Cheloninae
Allurus muricatus (Haliday, 1833) Braconidae: Euphorinae
Mirax rufilabris Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Miracinae


External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths
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Find using Google Scholar
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Last updated 10-May-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page