Leaf-miner: The frass is brown and in arcs, with narrow clear margins (unlike Stigmella continuella where the green frass completely fills the gallery) (British
on the underside of the leaf. Then a rather slender gallery, hardly
widening, even towards the end. The corridor is not strongly contorted,
not even in its first section; no browned spot in the leaf at the
start of the mine. Sides of the corridor irregularly scalloped.
The corridor mostly begins close to the leaf margin, often near
the tip of the leaf. The coiled frass is brown or black, even in
fresh mines; the frass fills most of the width of the corridor,
but always leaves a transparent zone at either side. Pupation external;
exit slit in the upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is yellow, brown head, and dark ventral spots (British
described by Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July - October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in the southern half
of England including Bedfordshire (VC30), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41),
Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40),
South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28) and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - Central, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia. Also recorded
in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.