Leaf-miner: A contorted gallery leading to small blotch (British
at the underside of the leaf, mostly close to a vein or the leaf
margin. The mine, a corridor, is rather variable, mostly strongly
contorted, sometimes even forming a secondary blotch, but at times
only a little sinuous, running along a vein or following the leaf
margin. The frass line is broad, especially in the first half of
the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is amber yellow, head brown (British
larva is also illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The cocoon is illustrated in British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - November (British
of year - adults: On the wing in April and May and again in
July and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A common species throughout
the British Isles (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Ayrshire (VC74), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96),
Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93),
North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Essex (VC18),
South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63),
Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16),
West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium,
Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia
- Central, East and North, Sardinia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish
mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia.
Also recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Parablastothrix vespertina Mercet, 1917
|Chrysocharis budensis Erdös, 1954
|Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis prodice (Walker, 1839)
gemmeus Westwood, 1840
|Derostenus punctiscuta Thomson, 1878
diallus Walker, 1838
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
|Adelius erythronotus (Förster, 1851)
|Adelius subfasciatus Haliday, 1833
|Gnamptodon pumilio (Nees, 1834)
|Mirax rufilabris Haliday, 1833