Leaf-miner: A long gallery, frass dispersed or linear (British
invariably at the lower surface. The mine is a full depth corridor,
quite variable in length and width. Also the frass pattern is very
variable: sometimes a narrow continuous line, sometimes a broad
zone. Always there remains a clear zone between the frass and the
side of the mine; also the frass is never coiled (Bladmineerders van Europa). The
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is yellow (British
yellow; described by Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Ian Barton. The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July - August, September - October (British
of year - adults: On the wing in May and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A species which is spreading
north and west since its discovery in Hampshire in 1914. It has
now extended its range to York, though it is still scarce in the
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Hertfordshire (VC20),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Isle of Wight (VC10), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), South Essex (VC18),
South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17),
Warwickshire (VC38), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, French
mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Macedonia,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland,
The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: