Leaf-miner: A contorted gallery, early part in underside of leaf (British
at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a gradually widening corridor.
Its first part generally is lower-surface, hardly visible from above;
further on the mine is full depth. Frass deposition very variable,
mostly in a narrow central line throughout, but sometiimes widely
dispersed or even coiled (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is pale yellow, head pale brown (British
yellow; described by Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Herefordshire (VC36), Merionethshire (VC48),
North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), Staffordshire (VC39), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands
and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: