Leaf-miner: A contorted, “gut”-shaped gallery. The fresh frass is reddish in
compact upper or lower side mine; a strongly contorted corridor
in intestine-like, zigzagging loops; only the very last part of
the corridor is free. Frass in the first and in the final part of
the mine black, warm brown and coiled in the central section, and,
except for the last section, occupying the entire width of the corridor.
Fresh mines have a striking red brown colour (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is green (British
leafminers). Bright green (Emmet, 1983a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: August - September (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), East Kent (VC15),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Middlesex (VC21),
North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Dodecanese Is., French
mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania,
Poland, Romania, Russia - East and South, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Switzerland and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: