The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Trifurcula eurema (Tutt, 1899)
[Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae]

Field Lotus Pigmy


Nepticula eurema Tutt, 1899. Brit. Lep. 1: 344.
Trifurcula eurema
(Tutt, 1899).


Leaf-miner: Egg at the upperside or underside of the leaf. The mine begins as a long narrow corridor with a linear frass line. The corridor abruptly widens into a blotch that in the end may occupy almost an entire leaflet. The blotch mostly starts at the base of the leaflet, and here also most frass is concentrated. Pupation generally within the mine; in rare cases the larva leaves the mine by an exit slit in the lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Initially forms a slender gallery at the leaf edge and then doubles back, along the original workings, towards the petiole. It then forms a blotch, which occupies the whole leaf. the frass is deposited in the base of the leaf. The mine is similar to that formed by T.cryptella (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Pale yellow, seeming green when still in the mine. The larva is described by Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a); thorax 1-3 dorsally with 10, 10, and 8 pairs of setae, respectively (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Adult: The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group (check for update).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Fabaceae        
Lotus corniculatus Common Bird's-foot-trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Fabaceae        
Dorycnium hirsutum Canary Clover   Bladmineerders van Europa
Dorycnium pentaphyllum Badassi   Bladmineerders van Europa
Dorycnium rectum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lotus corniculatus Common Bird's-foot-trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lotus cytisoides     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lotus ornithopodioides Southern Bird's-foot-trefoil   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lotus pedunculatus Greater Bird's-foot-trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lotus pedunculatus Greater Bird's-foot-trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Lotus uliginosus

Tetragonolobus maritimus Dragon's-teeth British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: July to October (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Durham, Isle of Wight, North Hampshire and West Cornwall (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, European Turkey, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Portuguese mainland, Sardinia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Dorycnium hirsutum, Lotus corniculatus, Lotus pedunculatus, Tetragonolobus maritimus

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Adelius subfasciatus Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Cheloninae


External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths
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Last updated 30-Nov-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page