The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Amauromyza verbasci (Bouché, 1847)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza verbasci Bouché, 1847. Stettin. ent. Ztg. 8(5): 143
Agromyza verbasci Bouché, 1847; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 75.
Amauromyza verbasci (Bouché, 1847); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 46
Amauromyza (Trilobomyza) verbasci (Bouché, 1847); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 166-7, figs 304-5
Amauromyza verbasci (Bouché, 1847); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 204, 214, 218, 221, 222, 223 (fig. 829), 224, 229, 231, 233, 385.


Leaf-mine: A linear-blotch mine, often with several mines occurring in the same leaf (Spencer, 1976: 167, fig. 305).

A short, mostly upper-surface, rarely partly lower-surface corridor leads to a large, upper-surface, primary blotch. The mine initially is pale, turns brown later. Frass in sizeable dispersed grains. Pupation outside the mine; the larva leaves the mine through a semicircular exit slit in the upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Upper surface variable mine, from a short gallery leading to a large, roundish blotch to a long gallery leading to an elongated blotch (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1925), Dempewolf (2001: 104) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Orange-yellow; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 167).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Buddlejaceae        
Buddleja       Robbins, 1991: 95
Buddleja davidii Butterfly-bush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Martin Honey, pers. comm.
Buddleja davidii Butterfly-bush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Buddleja davidii Butterfly-bush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Buddleja davidii Butterfly-bush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 110
Scrophulariaceae        
? Phygelius       Pitkin & Plant
Scrophularia auriculata Water Figwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120
Scrophularia nodosa Common Figwort   Mines in BMNH
Scrophularia nodosa Common Figwort   British leafminers
Scrophularia nodosa Common Figwort   Spencer, 1972b: 120
Verbascum       Mines in BMNH
Verbascum       British leafminers
Verbascum thapsus Great Mullein British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Verbascum thapsus Great Mullein British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 95
Verbascum thapsus Great Mullein British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120

Hosts elsewhere:

Buddlejaceae        
Buddleja       Spencer, 1990: 214
Buddleja davidii Butterfly-bush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Buddleja davidii Butterfly-bush British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 167
Scrophulariaceae        
Scrophularia       Spencer, 1990: 222
Scrophularia nodosa Common Figwort   Spencer, 1976: 167
Scrophularia nodosa Common Figwort   Dempewolf, 2001: 104
Scrophularia nodosa Common Figwort   Bladmineerders van Europa
Scrophularia umbrosa Green Figwort   Bladmineerders van Europa
Scrophularia vernalis Yellow Figwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Verbascum       Spencer, 1976: 167
Verbascum       Spencer, 1990: 222
Verbascum banaticum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Verbascum blattaria Moth Mullein British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Verbascum collinum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Verbascum densiflorum Dense-flowered Mullein   Bladmineerders van Europa
Verbascum eriophorum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Verbascum nigrum Dark Mullein British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Verbascum ramigera     Bladmineerders van Europa
Verbascum thapsus Great Mullein British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Verbascum vandasii     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-November.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Hampshire (Fleet) (British leafminers), Surrey (Box Hill), Isle Of Wight (Brading), Devon (Torcross), Cornwall (Lizard), Hereford (Woolhope) (Spencer, 1972b: 46), Warwickshire (Coventry and Warwick) (Robbins, 1991: 91), London, South Kensington, Natural History Museum Garden (Martin Honey, pers. comm.); East Sussex (VC14), Glamorgan (NBN Gateway).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Dublin) (Spencer, 1972b: 46).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe, including Denmark, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 167), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 550; Dempewolf, 2001: 104), Czech Republic, French mainland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Sardinia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Empty mines on Buddleja paniculata from Sunda in the Himalayas, N.W. India were identified by Spencer (1990) as Amauromyza verbasci.

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Buddleja davidii, Scrophularia auriculata, Scrophularia nodosa, Scrophularia umbrosa, Scrophularia vernalis, Verbascum blattaria, Verbascum densiflorum, Verbascum nigrum, Verbascum thapsus

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis amyite (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis idyia (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus trilobomyzae Griffiths, 1968 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa laevipectus Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Eurytenes abnormis (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius lucidus Szépligeti, 1896 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius ochrogaster Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pulchriceps (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma variegata (Szépligeti, 1896) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opiostomus griffithsi (Fischer, 1962) Braconidae: Opiinae
Rhogadopsis reconditor Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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