The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Chromatomyia ramosa (Hendel, 1923)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Teasel fly


Phytomyza ramosa Hendel, 1923a. Dt. ent. Z. 1923(4): 387
Phytomyza olgae Hering, 1925b. Dt. ent. Z. 1925(5): 527
Phytomyza nigriventris Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 440. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 479].
Phytomyza olgae Hering, 1925b; Spencer, 1971a. Ent. Gaz. 22: 191
Phytomyza nigritella Zetterstedt, 1848; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 95. [Misidentification]
Phytomyza ramosa Hendel, 1923a; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 478-80, figs 842-4
Chromatomyia ramosa (Hendel, 1923a); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 244, 245 (figs 923-5).
Phytomyza ramosa Hendel, 1923a; Winkler et al. 2009. Syst. ent. 34: 260-292.


Leaf-mine: Larvae feeding primarily along mid-rib, forming short lateral mines into the leaf blade. Pupation within the mid-rib. the corridors are short in Dipsacus, but longer in Knautia and Succisa. (Spencer, 1976: 480).

The larvae essentially is a borer in the midrib, but makes from there narrow corridors into the blade. In the end also a corridor can be made on top of the midrib. Most frass is deposited within the midrib, to a lesser extent also in the corridors, at the point where they leave the midrib (Hering, 1957, 1967a). Pupation in the mine, generally in the basal part of the tunnel in the midrib, just below the upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The larva feeds along the midrib, making short corridors into the leaf (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The winter is passed as a young larva in the basal rosette of leaves and it starts feeding again in early spring (Spencer, 1976: 480). The larva is also described by de Meijere (1926 and 1928).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

White (Spencer, 1976: 480).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Dipsacaceae        
Dipsacus       Robbins, 1991: 108, as nigritella
Dipsacus fullonum Wild Teasel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Dipsacus fullonum Wild Teasel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116, as nigritella
Dipsacus fullonum Wild Teasel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Knautia arvensis Field Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Knautia arvensis Field Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116, as nigritella
Knautia arvensis     Mines in BMNH
Succisa pratensis Devil's-bit Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Succisa pratensis Devil's-bit Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116, as nigritella
Succisa pratensis Devil's-bit Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Succisa pratensis Devil's-bit Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1994

Hosts elsewhere:

Dipsacaceae        
Dipsacus       Spencer, 1976: 480
Dipsacus       Spencer, 1990: 244
Dipsacus pilosus Small Teasel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Knautia       Spencer, 1990: 244
Knautia arvensis Field Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Knautia arvensis Field Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 480
Knautia dipsacifolia     Bladmineerders van Europa
Knautia sylvatica     Bladmineerders van Europa
Scabiosa bladnikiana     Bladmineerders van Europa
Scabiosa columbaria Small Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Succisa       Spencer, 1976: 480
Succisa       Spencer, 1990: 244
Succisa pratensis Devil's-bit Scabious British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: March-April, June-October.

Time of year - adults: There are at least two generations per year.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Perth (Killin) (Spencer, 1972b: 95, as nigritella), the Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992); Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), North Somerset (VC6), South Wiltshire (VC8), Surrey (VC17), West Norfolk (VC28) and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN Gateway).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe, including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 480), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 578), Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Spanish mainland and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Dipsacus fullonum, Knautia arvensis, Scabiosa columbaria, Succisa pratensis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pachyneuron muscarum (Linnaeus, 1758) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Sphegigaster pallicornis (Spinola, 1808) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Stenomalina gracilis (Walker, 1834) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus tanis (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa areolaris (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa metula (Nixon, 1954) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa pubescens (Curtis, 1926) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela spinifer (Nixon, 1954) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia posticatae (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius instabilis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma depeculator (Förster, 1862) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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