The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza ptarmicae de Meijere, 1925
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Liriomyza ptarmicae de Meijere, 1925. Tijdschr. Ent. 68: 286
Liriomyza millefolii Hering, 1927c. Z. angew. Ent. 13: 185. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 263]
Liriomyza chrysanthemi Hering, 1956b. Notul. ent. 31: 116. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 263]
Liriomyza ptarmicae de Meijere, 1925; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 56 (fig. 189), 57, 111
Liriomyza ptarmicae de Meijere, 1925; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 263-4, figs 467-9
Liriomyza ptarmicae de Meijere, 1925; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 300 (figs 1156-7), 301, 303, 307.


Leaf-mine: A narrow linear mine commencing on lower surface (Spencer, 1972b: 57; Spencer, 1976: 264).

Narrow brownish corridor, either upper- or lower-surface. Frass in strings or pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine. In small leaves the mine can be full-depth and occupy the entire leaf. At least in Achillea millefolium mines are generally found in the top half of the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1972b: 57; Spencer, 1976: 264). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellow (Spencer, 1976: 264). The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        

Achillea

millefolium Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 22
Achillea millefolium Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 111
Achillea ptarmica Sneezewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 115
Achillea ptarmica Sneezewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 111

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Achillea       Spencer, 1990: 307
Achillea distans Tall Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea millefolium Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea millefolium Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976
Achillea pannonica     Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea ptarmica Sneezewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea ptarmica Sneezewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 264
Artemisia       Spencer, 1990: 307
Matricaria       Spencer, 1990: 307

Time of year - mines: August (Hering, 1957).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Probably widespread, at least in south. Records include London (Hampstead), Middlesex (Scratch Wood) (Spencer, 1972b: 57) and Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 115); Cambridgeshire, Monmouthshire and South-west Yorkshire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Sicily, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 263), The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 558), Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland and Slovakia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Alberta) (Spencer, 1976: 263).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Achillea distans, Achillea millefolium, Achillea ptarmica

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Chrysocharis crassiscapus (Thomson, 1878) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus daimenes (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea

NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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