The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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MATRICARIA. Scentless Mayweed [Asteraceae]

Seven species of Matricaria are recorded in Britain. These include the native Scentless Mayweed (M. recutita). The BSBI provide a downloadable plant crib for Matricaria.

Seven British miners are recorded on Matricaria.

A key to the European miners recorded on Anthemis, Matricaria and Tripleurospermum is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

The agromyzid Napomyza lateralis feeds in the stems of Anthemis, Bidens, Calendula, Dimorphotheca, Matricaria, and Senecio in Britain, although it has also been found in the inflorescence of Matricaria (Spencer, 1972).

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Matricaria

1a > Stem-miner: A narrow, inconspicuous stem mine. Pupation at the end of the mine (Spencer, 1976: 64).

Fine, upper- or lower-surface corridor, ending in a thick vein. From there the mine extends finally to the rind of the stem. There also the pupation takes place, usually not far from the root collar. Mines in the stem rind often are conspicuous through a red discoloration (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Achillea, Achillea millefolium and ? Anthemis, Matricaria and Medicago sativa in Britain. In Britain widespread in south, not uncommon. On Anthemis, Achillea, Artemisia, Aster, Centaurea, Clinopodium, Crepis, Hieracium, Matricaria, Reichardia, Solidago, Tanacetum, Tripleurospermum, Medicago, Satureja and Stachys elsewhere. Widespread in continental Europe.

Ophiomyia curvipalpis (Zetterstedt, 1848) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: Mine linear, whitish, both upper and lower surface. Pupation internal, at the end of the mine with the anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 433).

Upper-surface, less often lower-surface corridor. Frass in isolated grains. Pupation within the mine, usually in a lower-surface puparial chamber (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A long whitish upper surface corridor, which eventually goes lower surface (British leafminers).

Two highly polyphagous species of Chromatomyia, with indistinguishable mines, have been recorded in Britain. These are syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau) which can only be distinguished by the male genitalia. Both species are widespread in Britain and elsewhere, although syngenesiae is almost entirely restricted to Asteraceae. Records on Asteraceae not based on examination of male genitalia are treated in this account as Chromatomyia 'atricornis'.

Chromatomyia horticola is recorded on 160 plant genera in 31 families, of which 55 plant genera in 19 families, but not yet on Matricaria, in Britain. On Matricaria elsewhere.

Chromatomya syngenesiae is recorded in Britain on 27 plant genera in the family Asteraceae and many more genera elsewhere, including Matricaria in Britain.

Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) [Diptera: Agromyzidae]
Chromatomyia syngenesiae Hardy, 1849 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1c > Leaf-miner: A distinctive mine primarily above mid-rib, with irregular short lateral offshoots into leaf blade. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972: 51 (fig. 172), 55; Spencer, 1976: 270, 271 (fig. 486)).

Branched, whitish, upper-surface corridor; main axis overlying the midrib; side branches overlying the main lateral veins. (In Campanula and Phyteuma the mine is much less branched, sometimes nothing more than a corridor on top of the midrib). Frass in rather long strings. Usually the mines begins as a long and narrow, shallow, tortuous lower-surface corridor that ends upon the midrib but otherwise is not associated with the leaf venation. Often this initial corridor is filled with callus, and then even less conspicuous. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A linear mine on the upper surface, usually following the midrib and showing side branches along the veins. The frass is in strings (British leafminers).

Polyphagous. On more than 40 host genera in 15 families, but not yet on Matricaria, in Britain,. Widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Liriomyza strigata (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1d > Leaf-miner: A narrow linear mine commencing on lower surface. Puparium yellow (Spencer, 1972: 57; Spencer, 1976: 264).

Narrow brownish corridor, either upper- or lower-surface. Frass in strings or pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine. In small leaves the mine can be full-depth and occupy the entire leaf. At least in Achillea millefolium mines are generally found in the top half of the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Posterior spiracles of larva each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1972: 57; Spencer, 1976: 264).

On Achillea ptarmica and Achillea millefolium, but not yet on Matricaria, in Britain and elsewhere and other species of Achillea elsewhere. Probably widespread in Britain, at least in south. Widespread in continental Europe and also recorded from Canada.

Liriomyza ptarmicae Meijere, 1925 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1e > Leaf-miner: A narrow linear mine, even in the finest subdivisions of the leaves (Spencer, 1972b: 77, as matricariae ; Spencer, 1976: 478).

Very fine corridor, upper- or lower-surface, even in the narrowest leaf segments. The corridor may be up to 14 cm long (Sehgal, 1971a). Generally the corridor descends towards the leaf base. Frass in pearl chains of loose grains, hardly in strings. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa). Very fine corridor, upper- or lower-surface, even in the narrowest leaf segments. The corridor may be up to 14 cm long (Sehgal, 1971a). Generally the corridor descends towards the leaf base. Frass in pearl chains of loose grains, hardly in strings. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Achillea millefolium, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Anthemis, Tanacetum vulgare, Tripleurospermum, Tripleurospermum maritimum and Tripleurospermum maritimum x inodora, but not yet on Matricaria, in Britain and other Asteraceae elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in Canada.

Phytomyza pullula Zetterstedt, 1848 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1f > Leaf-miner: The mine begins as a long, quite narrow corridor, usually not far from the tip of a leaf segment. Usually this corridor follows the leaf margin for some distance, but it may also run freely through the blade and may then be stongly contorted. In the end the corridor is directed towards the midrib, where an elongated blotch is formed, overlying the midrib and some of the larger lateral veins. Frass in a nearly continuous line in the initial corridor, in scattered lumps in the later part of the mine. Primary and secondary feeding lines very conspicuous when seen in transparancy. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine starts as a very narrow corridor, usually close to the tip of a leaf segment and following the leaf margin. The later section of the corridor approaches the main vein, where an elongated blotch is made with long broad finger like extensions that lay over the secondary veins. In the initial corridor the frass forms an almost continuous line, in the blotch it is distributed in large scattered lumps. In fresh mines the secondary feeding lines are clearly visible (British leafminers).

On numerous genera of Asteraceae, but not yet on Matricaria, in Britain, Throughout the British Isles, more common in the south than the north. Also continental Europe.

Trypeta zoe Meigen, 1826 [Diptera: Tephritidae].

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