The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, 1938
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Vegetable leaf miner


Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, 1938. An. Soc. Cient. Argentina 126: PAGE
Liriomyza verbenicola Hering 1951
Liriomyza canomarginis Frick 1952
Liriomyza minutiseta Frick 1952
Liriomyza pullata Frick 1952.
Liriomyza properpusilla Frost 1954.
Liriomyza munda Frick 1957.
Liriomyza guytona Freeman 1958
Lemurimyza lycopersicae Pla and de la Cruz 1981
Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, 1938; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 65, 133, 134 (figs 499-500), and more.

Leaf-mine: An irregular serpentine mine, indistinguishable from mine of Liriomyza bryoniae.

Corridor, freely winding through the leaf. Frass in strings. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is also illustrated in British leafminers.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Orange-yellow; posterior spiracles with 3 bulbs, of which the outer is extended.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Orange-yellow (Spencer, 1973a). The puparium is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Comments: A highly polyphagous pest of ornamental and vegetable crops occasionally intercepted on produce at UK points of entry. It cannot survive cold areas except in glasshouses. Hosts cited here include 134 plant genera in 33 plant families worldwide

Liriomyza sativae is listed in the European Community Plant Health Directive (2000/29/EC). As a non-native notifiable pest species, its occurence in the United Kingdom should be notified immediately to the Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate (tel: +44 (0) 1904 462000, e-mail: However, in order to be certain of the identity, the male genitalia should be critically examined. Diagnostic protocols may be found at /protocols/liriomyza.pdf - See also Collins (1996).

Lycopersicon esculentum is treated as Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) by Stace (2010).

Hosts: The species is recorded worldwide on Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Capparidaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Dioscoraceae, Dipsacaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, Moringaceae, Oleaceae, Onagraceae, Passifloraceae, Plantaginaceae, Poaceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Sapindaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Verbenaceae and Zygophyllaceae.

Time of year - mines: Currently unknown.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Occasionally intercepted on produce at UK points of entry. It cannot survive cold areas except in glasshouses.

Distribution elsewhere: Recorded in Finland, China, Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hunan, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang, India, Uttar Pradesh, Indonesia, Java, Iran, Israel, Japan, Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu Archipelago, Jordan, Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia, Oman, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen, Cameroon, Nigeria, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Canada (Ontario), Mexico, USA (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas), Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, St Kitts Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, Argentina, Brazil, Ceara, Parana, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Chile, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru, Venezuela, American Samoa, Cook Islands, Federal States of Micronesia, French Polynesia, Guam, New Caledonia, Northern Mariana Islands, Samoa, Vanuatu (CABI Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, 2002).

See also Fauna Europaea

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Allium cepa, Allium porrum, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus viridis, Ambrosia trifida, Anoda cristata, Antirrhinum majus, Apium graveolens, Arachis hypogaea, Beta vulgaris, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Calendula officinalis, Capsicum annuum, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium murale, Citrullus lanatus, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima, Dahlia pinnata, Datura innoxia, Daucus carota, Digitaria sanguinalis, Elymus repens, Felicia bergeriana, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga parviflora, Glycine max, Helianthus annuus, Jasminum officinale, Lactuca sativa, Leucanthemum vulgare, Lycopersicon esculentum (= Solanum lycopersicum), Malva neglecta, Malva nicaeensis, Malva pusilla, Medicago lupulina, Medicago sativa, Melilotus albus, Melilotus indicus, Melissa officinalis, Nepeta cataria, Nicotiana tabacum, Oenothera biennis, Passiflora caerulea, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Physalis angulata, Plantago major, Polygonum aviculare, Polygonum persicaria, Raphanus sativus, Ricinus communis, Senecio vulgaris, Silybum marianum, Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrum, Solanum tuberosum, Solidago canadensis, ? Solidago gigantea, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Spinacia oleracea, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium fragiferum, Trifolium hybridum, Trifolium incarnatum, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, Vicia faba, Zea mays

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Neochrysocharis formosus (Westwood, 1833) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus crassinervis Erdös, 1958 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Halticoptera aenea (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Halticoptera circulus (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea - Links to species no longer available  
Desmiostoma parvulum (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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