The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach, 1858)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Tomato Leaf-miner


Agromyza bryoniae Kaltenbach, 1858. Verh. naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl. 15: 158
Liriomyza sonchi Hering, 1927c. Z. angew. Ent. 13: 181
Liriomyza solani Hering, 1927c. Z. angew. Ent. 13 : 181
Liriomyza mercurialis Hering, 1932a. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie 26: 165
Liriomyza citruli Rohdendorf, 1950. Ent. Obozr. 31: 82
Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach, 1858); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 52
Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach, 1858); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 233-4, figs 396-401
Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach, 1858); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 47, 62-3, 69, 78- 80 (figs 289-92), 85-86, 93, 111, 113, 148, 155, 158-60, 169, 180, and more
Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach, 1858); Bland, 1997a. Dipterists Digest 4(1): 50.


Leaf-mine: A short, irregular, linear upper surface mine on any part of the leaf. Also recorded from young pods (Bland, 1997a).

Long corridor mine. As a rule the first part of the mine is lower-surface, the later part upper-surface. Often the loops are so dense that a secondary blotch is the result. Because upper- and lower-surface corridor segments often cross, the mine obtains a strange array of transparant patches. There is no association with the midrib. Frass in strings and thread fragments. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine not associated with the veins or midrib of the leaf (It is this character which enables distinction from another Agromyzid pest species - Liriomyza huidobriensis). The larvae may leave one leaf (if not large enough) and enter another leaf, via the petiole). It exits the leaf to pupate through a semi-circular slit in the upper surface of the leaf (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Dempewolf (2001: 148) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Pale yellowish-brown; posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 7-12 bulbs.

Adult:

Wing of Liriomyza bryoniae
Wing of Liriomyza bryoniae

The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Comments: A highly polyphagous species principally mining Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae, although recorded on hosts in numerous other plant families. A pest of tomatoes in glasshouses. A significant pest on several genera of cultivated cucurbits in Europe, but rarely found on its original host Bryonia (Spencer, 1990). Hosts cited here include 119 plant genera in 31 plant families of which only 4 plant genera in 2 plant families are records in Britain.

A serious pest in the Mediterranean area of tomatoes and has been recorded as a pest of tomatoes in glasshouses in England, The Netherlands and Denmark. In France tomatoes, melon, cucumber and lettuce have been attacked (Spencer, 1973a). A major pest species on a large range of species, which forms irregular twisting mines, which are not associated with the veins or midrib of the leaf (It is this character which enables distinction from another Agromyzid pest species - Liriomyza huidobrensis). The larvae may leave one leaf (if not large enough) and enter another leaf, via the petiole). It exits the leaf to pupate through a semi-circular slit in the upper surface of the leaf. Highly polyphagous and mainly restricted to greenhouses and botanical gardens, where it is a particular pest of Tomatoes. Large infestations can cause reduced fruit yield and even death of the plant (British leafminers)

In Northern Ireland Liriomyza bryoniae is listed in the European Community Plant Health Directive (2000/29/EC). As a non-native notifiable pest species, its occurence in the United Kingdom should be notified immediately to the Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate (tel: +44 (0) 1904 462000, e-mail: info@fera.gsi.gov.uk ) However, in order to be certain of the identity, the male genitalia should be critically examined. Diagnostic protocols may be found at /protocols/liriomyza.pdf - See also Collins (1996).

Bland (1997a) records mines of bryoniae in young seed pods of Pisum sativum - mangetout purchased in Scotland - which, from enquiries he made, suggested came from southern France.

Minkenberg and Lenteren (1986) review the hosts and parasites of Liriomyza bryoniae.

Arabis glabra is treated as Turritis glabra (Tower Mustard) and Lycopersicon esculentum is treated as Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Dahlia pinnata Dahlia   Pitkin & Plant
Dahlia pinnata Dahlia   British leafminers
Hydrocotyle       Pitkin & Plant
Hydrocotyle       British leafminers
Cucurbitaceae        
Cucumis sativus Cucumber   Spencer, 1972b: 116
Cucumis sativus Cucumber   British leafminers
Fabaceae        
Phaseolus       Pitkin & Plant
Phaseolus       British leafminers
Lupinus       Pitkin & Plant
Lupinus       British leafminers
Lamiaceae        
Galeopsis       Pitkin & Plant
Galeopsis       British leafminers
Scrophulariaceae        
Linaria       Pitkin & Plant
Linaria       British leafminers
Solanaceae        
Atropa belladonna Deadly Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Atropa belladonna Deadly Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Atropa belladonna Deadly Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120
Lycopersicon esculentum Tomato British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Lycopersicon esculentum Tomato British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lycopersicon esculentum Tomato British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120
Solanum villosum Red Nightshade   British leafminers
Solanum villosum Red Nightshade   Mines in BMNH

Hosts elsewhere: Alismataceae, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Basellaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lamiaceae, Loasaceae, Malvaceae, Oxalidaceae, Pedaliaceae, Piperaceae, Plantaginaceae, Polemoniaceae, Primulaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Valerianaceae and Verbenaceae.

Time of year - mines: June -September (British leafminers)

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Local, probably introduced. Surrey (Kew Gardens), Hertfordshire (Cheshunt), Sussex (Worthing) (Spencer, 1972b: 52), Channel Is. (Martinez in Fauna Europaea). As far north as East Yorkshire in glasshouses where tomato, pepper and less often, cucumber are grown (Dom Collins, pers. comm.).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe particularly in Botanical Gardens and glasshouses. France, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 234), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Dempewolf (2001: 148), Albania, the Ukraine and the Caucasus (Spencer, 1976: 234), Lithuania (Ostrauskas, Pakalniskis and Taluntyte, 2003), Austria, Azores, Belarus, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corsica, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, European Turkey, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Malta, Republic of Moldova, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Sicily, Slovenia, Spanish mainland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also known in Egypt (Spencer, 1976: 234).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Alisma plantago-aquatica, Alliaria petiolata, Antirrhinum majus, Anthyllis vulneraria, Apium graveolens, Arabis glabra (= Turritis glabra), Amoracia rusticana, Atropa belladonna, Barbarea vulgaris, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, Bryonia cretica, Capsicum annuum, Chenopodium botrys, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Callistephus chinensis, Centaurea nigra, Centranthus ruber, Chorispora tenella, Cirsium arvense, Citrullus lanatus, Coriandrum sativum, Coronilla emerus, Coronilla scorpioides, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita pepo, Cymbalaria muralis, Dahlia pinnata, Datura stramonium, Galega officinalis, Galeopsis tetrahit, Galinsoga parviflora, Gypsophila paniculata, Hesperis matronalis, Hibiscus trionum, Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Hyoscyamus niger, Kickxia elatine, Kickxia spuria, Lactuca sativa, Lagenaria siceraria, Lathyrus japonicus, Lathyrus niger, Lathyrus tuberosus, Lathyrus vernus, Lavatera olbia, Lens culinaris, Linaria purpurea, Linaria vulgaris, Levisticum officinale, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, Lupinus nootkatensis, Lupinus polyphyllus, Lycium barbarum, Lycium chinense, Lycopersicon esculentum (= Solanum lycopersicum), Malva neglecta, Medicago scutellata, Melilotus albus, Melilotus indicus, Melilotus officinalis, Mercurialis annua, Nicandra physalodes, Nicotiana alata, Nicotiana x sanderae, Nicotiana tabacum, Ononis spinosa, Oxytropis campestris, Oxalis acetosella, Petunia axillaris x hybrida, Phaseolus coccineus, Phaseolus vulgaris, Physalis alkekengi, Physalis peruviana, Pisum sativum, Plantago afra, Plantago arenaria, Plantago major, Primula auricula, Raphanus sativus, Ricinus communis, Scrophularia nodosa, Sedum telephium, Sedum spectabile, Sinapis alba, Sisymbrium irio, Sisymbrium officinale, Solanum dulcamara, Solanum villosum, Solanum nigrum, Solanum tuberosum, Sonchus asper, Spinacia oleracea, Stellaria media, Trifolium hybridum, Trifolium incarnatum, Trifolium ochroleucon, Trifolium pannonicum, Trigonella caerulea, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Tropaeolum majus, Tropaeolum peregrinum, Verbascum blattaria, Verbascum creticum, Verbascum densiflorum, Verbascum phlomoides, Vicia benghalensis, Vicia faba, Vicia narbonensis, Vicia villosa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus minoeus (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Halticoptera circulus (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus daimenes (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa hospita (Förster, 1862) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa sibirica Telenga, 1935 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pulchriceps (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma pulchriceps (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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