The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza sonchi Hendel, 1931
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Liriomyza sonchi Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 247
Liriomyza sonchi Hendel, 1931; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 56 (fig. 186), 57, 115
Liriomyza sonchi Hendel, 1931; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 269-70, figs 481-3.
Liriomyza sonchi Hendel, 1931; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 131, 259, 263, 264 (figs 990-2), 390.


Leaf-mine: A small primary blotch, often several larvae feeding together (Spencer, 1972b: 56 (fig. 186); Spencer, 1976: 270, 271 (fig. 483)).

Brown, upper-surfsce blotch; often several larvae in a mine. The blotch is preceded by a short initial corridor, often overrun by the later blotch. Frass in a few, small grains. Secondary feeding lines well visible. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Small upper surface blotch, with occasional galleries leading from the blotch. Often several larvae feeding together (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is briefly described by de Meijere (1925, as hieracii), Hering (1957a), Sasakawa (1961) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. Posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 8-10 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 270).

Liriomyza sonchi larva,  lateral
Liriomyza sonchi larva, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Liriomyza sonchi larva,  lateral
Liriomyza sonchi puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Comments: The host-specificity of sonchi has been experimentally tested in Canada (Peschken and Derbyshire, 1988: 593-600). The species is restricted to Sonchus, the records of sonchi on Lapsana (Robbins, 1991: 123) and Lactua and Mycelis muralis (Bladmineerders van Europa) require confirmation.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Sonchus       British leafminers
Sonchus       Robbins, 1991: 123
Sonchus       Spencer, 1972b: 57
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 22
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 22
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 22
Sonchus oleraceus Marsh Sow-thistle   Spencer, 1972b: 115
Sonchus palustris Marsh Sow-thistle   Spencer, 1972b: 115

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Cichorium intybus Chicory British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lactuca perennis Mountain Lettuce   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lactuca serriola Prickly Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Mycelis muralis Wall Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prenanthes purpurea Purple Lettuce   Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus       Spencer, 1976: 270
Sonchus       Spencer, 1990: 259
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 270
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 270
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 270
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus palustris Marsh Sow-thistle   Spencer, 1976: 270
Sonchus palustris Marsh Sow-thistle   Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-September.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread, at least in south. Records include London (Hampstead), Middlesex (Scratch Wood), Berkshire (Pangbourne) (Spencer, 1972b: 57); Warwickshire (Robbins, 1991: 123); Cambridgeshire, East Suffolk, Glamorgan, Isle of Wight, South Lancashire and Surrey (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare, Co. Wexford (Rosslare) (Spencer, 1972b: 57).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread and common in much of Europe including Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland (Spencer, 1976: 270), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 558), Austria, Czech Republic, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Peschken and Derbyshire, 1988).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Cichorium intybus, Lactuca serriola, Mycelis muralis, Prenanthes purpurea, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Sonchus palustris

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis entedonoides (Walker, 1872) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus daimenes (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa sibirica Telenga, 1935 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius gracilis Fischer, 1957 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma exigua Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Find images using Google


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