The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza taraxaci Hering, 1927
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Liriomyza taraxaci Hering, 1927c. Z. angew. Ent. 13: 184
Liriomyza taraxaci Hering, 1927c; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 252
Liriomyza taraxaci Hering, 1927c; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 56 (fig. 187), 57, 114, 115
Liriomyza taraxaci Hering, 1927c; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 274, figs 490-1.
Liriomyza taraxaci Hering, 1927c; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 259, 263, 264 (fig. 993).


Leaf-mine: A small somewhat irregular, elongate blotch (Spencer, 1972b: 57; Spencer, 1976: 273 (fig. 491), 274).

Elongated upper-surfcace blotch with fairly little frass in loose grains. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1925). Posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 8-10 bulbs (Spencer, 1972b: 57; Spencer, 1976: 274). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Liriomyza taraxaci larva,  dorsal
Liriomyza taraxaci larva, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Orchestes fagi larva,  dorsal
Liriomyza taraxaci puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Comments: Leontodon autumnalis is treated as Scorzoneroides autumnalis (Autumn Hawkbit) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        

Leontodon

autumnalis Autumn Hawkbit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Taraxacum       Robbins, 1991: 123
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1972b: 25
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Aposeris       Bladmineerders van Europa
Arnoseris       Spencer, 1990: 263
Arnoseris       Bladmineerders van Europa
Leontodon       Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus       Spencer, 1990: 263
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1976: 274
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1990: 263
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-August.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Perth (Killin) (Spencer, 1972b: 57), Warwickshire (Coventry, Holbrooks) (Robbins, 1991: 123); South-west Yorkshire and Surrey (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Kilkenny (Spencer, 1972b: 57).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in Europe including Denmark, Sweden, Norway (Spencer, 1976: 274); The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 562), Canary Is., Finland, French mainland, Lithuania, Poland and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Range extending eastwards to the Central Asian Republics of the [former] U.S.S.R. (Spencer, 1976: 274).

Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 188).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Leontodon autumnali (= Scorzoneroides autumnalis), Taraxacum officinale

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Ichneumonoidea  
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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