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The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Pegomya betae (Curtis, 1847)
[Diptera: Anthomyiidae]


Anthomyia betae Curtis, 1847. Jl R. agric. Soc. (London) 8: 412
Anthomyza dissimilipes Zetterstedt, 1849. Dipt. Scand. 8: 3311
Anthomyia femoralis Brischke, 1881. Schr. naturf. Ges. Danzig 5: 275.
Pegomya betae (Curtis, 1847).


Leaf-mine: Blotch mines, generally occupying an entire leaf, usually containing several larvae. Much, half deliquescent, green frass (Bladmineerders van Europa). Mine indistinguishable from P. exilis or P. hyoscyami (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The eggs and larvae are described by d'Aguilar and Missonier (1957 and 1962). The mandibles have a number of teeth, of varying size; the angle between the termainal and the penultimate teeth is almost straight, not sharp as in P. hyoscyami (d'Aguilar and Missonier, 1957a, 1962a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparia: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples). Reddish brown, in the soil.
Adult: The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Comments: A notorious pest of beet. Pegomya exilis and Pegomya cunicularia were distinguished from Pegomya betae and Pegomya hyoscyami by Michelsen (1980). Material of both [the former species] had previously been assigned to those [two latter] species (Chandler, pers. comm.).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Chenopodiaceae        
Atriplex       Robbins, 1983-7
Beta       Curtis, 1847
Beta vulgaris Beet Beta vulgaris Mines in BMNH
Polygonaceae        
? Polygonum       Robbins, 1991: 36

Hosts elsewhere:

Caryophyllaceae        
Silene       Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodiaceae        
Atriplex       Hering, 1957
Atriplex patula Common Orache British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima Sea Beet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Beta maritima

Beta vulgaris Beet Beta vulgaris Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium       Brischke, 1881
Chenopodium album Fat-hen British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium bonus-henricus Good-King-Henry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium hybridum Maple-leaved Goosefoot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Spinacia oleracea Spinach   Bladmineerders van Europa
Solanaceae        
Atropa bella-donna Deadly Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Hyoscyamus niger Henbane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Solanum dulcamara Bittersweet / Woody Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June.

Time of year - adults: Two-three generations per year.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Warwickshire (Coventry, Holbrooks) (Robbins, 1991: 36); Caernarvonshire, Cambridgshire, Cardinganshire, Easterness, North Essex, Orkney and South-west-Yorkshire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, ? Poland, Russia - North, Slovakia and Sweden (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in East Palaearctic and Nearctic Regions (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Atriplex patula, Atropa belladonna, Beta vulgaris, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium bonus-henricus, Chenopodium hybridum, Hyoscyamus niger, Solanum dulcamara, Spinacia oleracea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Trichomalopsis hemiptera (Walker, 1835) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, 1833 Trichogrammatidae: Trichogrammatinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Biosteres spinaciae (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Opiinae
Biosteres wesmaelii (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma munda (Förster, 1862) Braconidae: Opiinae
Utetes fulvicollis (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phygadeuon elegans (Förster, 1850) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Phygadeuon pegomyiae Habermehl, 1928 Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Phygadeuon rotundipennis Thomson, 1884 Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Phygadeuon trichops Thomson, 1884 Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


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Last updated 09-Nov-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page